COMPOSITION 1933

THE ENLARGMENT OF THE ORGAN

A first, substantial, change of the instrument of Cavaillé-Coll was realized in 1933 under the direction of the titulaire, Charles Tournemire, both in terms of stops and reharmonisation and in terms of mechanics. The works were carried out by Joseph Beuchet-(Ets Cavaillé-Coll).

THE REASONS

In a letter to Carl Weinrich, Charles

Tournemire complained about the

precarious state of the organ: "The organ of

Sainte Clotilde is in such poor condition

that it has been decided to repair it." In

addition to its multiple failures due to its

great age (seventy-two years without

restoration), the instrument presented to

Tournemire some technical weaknesses:

The range of keyboards and pedals: 54

notes (C, f3) for keyboards and 27 notes

(C, d1) for pedals.

The high number of 8-foot foundations

and the lack of mutations

The relative poverty of stops on the

Swell which had, moreover, no mixtures

and mutations

The Pedal, which had a limited number

of foundation stops.

Although consistent with the aesthetics of

the young Cavaillé-Coll of 1859, the

composition was no longer up-to-date in

1930. Tournemire was one of the first to

rediscover the early European music,

especially in Frescobaldi, Buxtehude,

Cabanilles, Pachelbel, Grigny and Bach.

Therefore, it does not appear unthinkable

that, taking advantage of the instrument's

dilapidation, Tournemire wanted more

than a 'pious' restoration and favored the

implementation of his innovative ideas

with respect to the organ building. He

elaborated on these ideas in the a notice of

the inauguration of 1933:

This enrichment is justified by the concern

that I had, in conscience, to fully serve the

Art of the Organ, from the 13th century to

the present day. In addition, I have not

forbade myself to think about future

possibilities ...

EYEWITNESS REPORTS

Following the inauguration of the organ modified

by the Maison Beuchet, many personalities from

the Parisian organ world spoke about the work

done.

Tournemire Miramon Fitz-James/André Fleury Pierre Moreau Maurice Emmanuel Some articles published in journals .

THE ORGAN OF CHARLES TOURNEMIRE

The works included: Conservation of the original traction, including the two Barker machines Installation of a pneumatic stoptraction Extension of the manuals to 61 notes (C-c4), and the pedal to 32 notes (C- g1), requiring the placement of supplementary windchests for Great, Pos and Swell; the extension of the pedal was realized within the existing windchest Enlargement and deepening of the Swell by adding a new windchest (with six stops) behind the original and porbably the installation of a Barker machine for the swell A lowering of wind pressure of the Positive. According to Marie-Louise Langlais (source: video), Tournemire wanted to achieve a significant difference between the GO and the positive (which was originally louder than GO). The result was a change in the balance between the GO and the Positif compared with the organ known by Franck and Tournemire (before 1933). Installing of a new ergonomic console with several new features, including 26 spoons of combinations. The expression pedal was refocused. The layout of the stops was as follows: the sets of funds on the left, the sets of combinations on the right, like the combination pedals. Aware of the historical value of Franck's console, Tournemire bought it from the parish priest of Sainte-Clotilde and his widow gave it to his former friend Flor Peeters (Belgium). In turn, Flor Peeters gave it by will to the Royal Conservatory of Antwerp. It is now showed at the Vleeshuismuseum in Antwerp.
The composition was also modified (an addition of about 40% to the original piping). The changes and additions were: Great + cornet V (on a small additional windchest); Octave 4' replaced by a Flûte 4' (perhaps realized during the 1962- works) Positive + Tierce 1 3/5' + Piccolo 1' (on the place of the Clarinette which had been moved to the Swell); the Unda maris was tuned equally and called Salicional; the Flûte octaviante 4' was transformed into a Flûte 4'. the Viole de Gambe was reharmonized Récit + Quintaton 16' + Nasard 2 2/3' + Tierce 1 3/5' + Plein Jeu IV + Bombarde 16' + Clarinette 8' (of the Positif) Addition of the first octave octave of the Gambe 8’ Pedal Addition of a Soubasse 16 and a Quinte 5 1/3 on an additional new windchest in front of the Swell. This addition caused an imbalance between the Swell and the Positive. That's why (probably just after 1945), a part of the roof of the organ case was taken away and replaced by a sound board placed approx. 1 meter above the case to improve to sound of the Swell in the church. Basse 8' was transformed into a Flûte 8’ Octave 4' was transformed into a Flûte 4'.
The works started in July 1932. The reharmonisation was done by Michel Merz and the mechanical works (restoration and enlargement) were carried out by Berthelot and Thiemann. The costs were approximately 250,000 franc. The inspection took place on June 27, 1933, in the presence of Albert Alain, Joseph Bonnet, Paul Brunold, Alexandre Cellier, André Marchal and Félix Raugel. The inauguration was on Friday 30 June in the presence of Cardinal Verdier, Archbishop of Paris. The program of Tournemire: Tiento VII of Cabanilles, Buxtehude's Toccata (BuxWV 156), the third Chorale by Franck, a first performance of the first two of his three poems opus 59, Communion of the sunday in the octave of the Ascension of the ‘Orgue Mystique’ and an improvisation.
* The last audition of the organ "of Franck" was given by seven students of Tournemire, on April 25, 1932 (Daniel Lesur, Gaston Litaize, Jean Langlais, Olivier Messiaen, Noelie Pierront, Maurice Duruflé and André Fleury). The program was devoted to the compositions of "L’orgue mystique. .** The harmonist Michel Mertz was trained in the Cavaillé-Coll workshop, where he entered in May 1898 (National Library of France, RES VMA MS-1370), the same year that Aristide Cavaillé-Coll sold his business to Charles Mutin. According to Jean-Marc Cicchéro (Hommage à une passion, p. 68), he remained there until 1936. But he was not part of the staff of the Beuchet-Debierre house.
THE GREAT ORGAN 3/5 the organ of Franck - the organ of Tournemire - the organ of Langlais - the organ of Taddei

RECORDINGS

César Franck Prière en ut dièse mineur Fantaisie en La Majeur Final Feike Asma, Sainte Clotilde, 1959 Source
A historical photo of the Grand Orgue taken by Maurice Duruflé himself (with thanks to Frédéric Blanc)
THE GREAT ORGAN 3/5 the organ of Franck - the organ of Tournemire - the organ of Langlais - the organ of Taddei

THE ORGAN OF CHARLES TOURNEMIRE

THE ENLARGMENT OF THE ORGAN

A first, substantial, change of the instrument of Cavaillé-Coll was realized in 1933 under the direction of the titulaire, Charles Tournemire, both in terms of stops and reharmonisation and in terms of mechanics. The works were carried out by Joseph Beuchet-(Ets Cavaillé- Coll).
The works included: Conservation of the original traction, including the two Barker machines Installation of a pneumatic stoptraction Extension of the manuals to 61 notes (C- c4), and the pedal to 32 notes (C-g1), requiring the placement of supplementary windchests for Great, Pos and Swell; the extension of the pedal was realized within the existing windchest Enlargement and deepening of the Swell by adding a new windchest (with six stops) behind the original and porbably the installation of a Barker machine for the swell A lowering of wind pressure of the Positive. According to Marie-Louise Langlais (source: video), Tournemire wanted to achieve a significant difference between the GO and the positive (which was originally louder than GO). The result was a change in the balance between the GO and the Positif compared with the organ known by Franck and Tournemire (before 1933). Installing of a new ergonomic console with several new features, including 26 spoons of combinations. The expression pedal was refocused. The layout of the stops was as follows: the sets of funds on the left, the sets of combinations on the right, like the combination pedals. Aware of the historical value of Franck's console, Tournemire bought it from the parish priest of Sainte-Clotilde and his widow gave it to his former friend Flor Peeters (Belgium). In turn, Flor Peeters gave it by will to the Royal Conservatory of Antwerp. It is now showed at the Vleeshuismuseum in Antwerp.
The works started in July 1932. The reharmonisation was done by Michel Merz and the mechanical works (restoration and enlargement) were carried out by Berthelot and Thiemann. The costs were approximately 250,000 franc. The inspection took place on June 27, 1933, in the presence of Albert Alain, Joseph Bonnet, Paul Brunold, Alexandre Cellier, André Marchal and Félix Raugel. The inauguration was on Friday 30 June in the presence of Cardinal Verdier, Archbishop of Paris. The program of Tournemire: Tiento VII of Cabanilles, Buxtehude's Toccata (BuxWV 156), the third Chorale by Franck, a first performance of the first two of his three poems opus 59, Communion of the sunday in the octave of the Ascension of the ‘Orgue Mystique’ and an improvisation.
The composition was also modified (an addition of about 40% to the original piping). The changes and additions were: Great + cornet V (on a small additional windchest); Octave 4' replaced by a Flûte 4' (perhaps realized during the 1962-works) Positive + Tierce 1 3/5' + Piccolo 1' (on the place of the Clarinette which had been moved to the Swell); the Unda maris was tuned equally and called Salicional; the Flûte octaviante 4' was transformed into a Flûte 4'. the Viole de Gambe was reharmonized Récit + Quintaton 16' + Nasard 2 2/3' + Tierce 1 3/5' + Plein Jeu IV + Bombarde 16' + Clarinette 8' (of the Positif) Addition of the first octave octave of the Gambe 8’ Pedal Addition of a Soubasse 16 and a Quinte 5 1/3 on an additional new windchest in front of the Swell. This addition caused an imbalance between the Swell and the Positive. That's why (probably just after 1945), a part of the roof of the organ case was taken away and replaced by a sound board placed approx. 1 meter above the case to improve to sound of the Swell in the church. Basse 8' was transformed into a Flûte 8’ Octave 4' was transformed into a Flûte 4'.
EYE WITNESS REPORTS Following the inauguration of the organ modified by the Maison Beuchet, many personalities from the Parisian organ world spoke about the work done. Tournemire Miramon Fitz-James/André Fleury Pierre Moreau Maurice Emmanuel
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